总结中考英语作文的技巧

发布时间:2020-11-20 05:45:40
作者:敬易

中考

技巧:如何写出有深度的作文

一、从人生的体会方面去思考,关注生活,写出个人生命体验。像我们所说的“责任”这个话题,不同的人在不同的年龄阶段的责任感是不同的。而这种话题 更多地体现在针对学生这一个年龄层次来进行命题的,更多是关于学生的责任、学生的生活,不是空洞地喊

式责任,而是注入了很多的人文精神的一种责任。

二、从哲理的思辨性方面去思考。比方说“优势与成败”这个话题,体现出成败和优势之间关系的辩证思考。具有优势的人并不一定就能成功,而在劣势 下面他也并不一定就失败。这是一种辩证哲理思维,我们平时要多去仔细思索、思考,从理性的角度,从哲学的角度去理解它,特别要时刻提醒自己,作文内容要尽 量贴近现实生活,注意用辩证眼光看问题。

三、结合我们时代的一些特点去思考。平时要多关注时事,看一些报刊评论等,有利于从时代的眼光去把握问题。

四、注意写作素材的积累。我们平时可以多准备一些素材,而且要按不同的类别分门别类。比如从自信心的角度去总结一些素材,从责任的角度又总结一些素材。可以按这样的类别整理情感、道德、科技、环境、自然、人生感悟、社会生活、文化问题等等。

写作技巧:英文写作中词语的选择

说话或写文章时用词适当比穿着适当难度大得多,因而也具有更大的重要性。在我国,古人写文章时常为一个词语的选用具思苦想,因而有“语不惊人死不休”的说法。

写作技巧:英文写作中词语的选择

在The Right Word at the Right Time的“序言”中,编者对词语选用的重要性作了一个很好的比喻:“Using the right word at the right time is rather like wearing appropriate clothing for the occasion:

it is a courtesy to others,and a favor to yourself-a matter of presenting yourself well in the eyes of the world."

显然,说话或写文章时用词适当比穿着适当难度大得多,因而也具有更大的重要性。在我国,古人写文章时常为一个词语的选用具思苦想,因而有“语不惊人死不休”的说法。

“一字值千金”也说明了选择词语的极端重要性。有时“一字之差”造成令人遗憾的败笔,或招致成千上万的经济损失。这些反面的教训也告诉我们必须重视词语选用的问题。

实际上,我们每个人的脑子里都有了一个或大或小的词库,只要我们肯去发掘,往往可以得到更好的表达方式。这是我们做好词语选用的主观条件。

从客观条件广看,我们有各种类型的词典和参考书,只要我们平时多翻译、多阅读,写作时勤查考,就会在词语选用上不断进步。当然,一部好词典也不会毫无缺点,更难以面面俱到,因此在这里我们应牢牢记住著名英国作家、评论家和辞书编纂家Johson的话:

Dictionaries are like watches: the worst is better than none, and the best cannot be expected to go quite true.

关于择语标准,人们说法不一,但准确、鲜明、生动三项原则是公认的。当然,某词语用得是否符合要求,不可孤立地从词语本身的含义上着眼,还要看其具体使用场合,包括同其他词语搭配等。

1)择语的准确性

准确性,就是要根据使用场合选用确切的语言形式,正如有句英语俗语所言:

Do not write so that your words may be undetstood, but write so that your words must be understood.

著名美国作家马克·吐温说:“用词准确与用词几乎准确,这两者之间的差异就如闪电与萤火虫之间的差异。”(The difference between the right word and the almost-right word is as great as that between lighting and the lighting bug.)

为了择语准确,必须熟悉词语的多义性。例如depression对心理学家、经济学家或地质学家来说,含义各不相同:

He is in a state of deep depression as a result of his setback latest experiment.

The depression first hit almost all the small and medium-sized enterprises.

Transportation was at a standstill caused by the depressions in the highways after the earthquake in that area.

反之,也常常有几个词语可以表示类似的含义,如心理学上的“depression”也能用melancholia,the blues,the dismal in the dumps,low等词语表示。

要做到准确选择,有必要注意词语的两种意义:“基本意义”(denotation)和"引申意义"(connotation)。前者指该词语的本身,或客观的固有含义,后者指该词语在一定搭配或上下句中出现的其他意义,往往比较含蓄,带有词语使用者的主观态度或感情色彩。如inexpensive和cheap都表示便宜的基本意思,如顾客问营业员:“May I have some thing cheaper?”意思是希望要价钱便宜一点的,当然并不是说质量可以不好,但cheap在其他句式或使用场合可引出“低劣”、“平庸”、“吝啬”、“卑鄙”等多种意思,这类意思正是修辞上的“敏感地带”。

选用词语的准确性还表现在区分表示大体/抽象含义的词语和表示具体/特定含义的词语上,需要根据不同的使用场合做出正确的选择。抽象含义词语和具体含义词语不是两个对立的家族,在一定的条件下可以转化,如

labor一词通常带抽象含义,但并非一成不变。试比较:

A)Honest labor creates wealth for the society.

B)In the GM contract dispute, labor seeks a five-cent per hour wage increase.

上述A句中labor一词为抽象含义,泛指各种社会劳动,B句中labor为具体含义,特指WAW,即美国汽车、飞机、农业机械工人联合会。

2)择语的鲜明度

准确性是鲜明度的前提,也是提高鲜明度的基础。然而,鲜明与简练相关。英国文豪莎士比亚的名言“Brevity is the soul of wit”相当于汉语的“言贵简洁”。我们说话、写文章都要以“言简意赅”四字为目标,为此,应从两个方面加以注意:

A.在可以运用较简短的常见词语表达意思时不要用复杂而少的词语,如:do something for(不用perform,

accomplish),用end/finish a letter (不用terminate,conclude)。

B.多余的或转弯抹角的词语都不利于明白地表达思想,因而下列短语中加括号的部分都应省去:

mutual aid(to each other)(mutual)aid to each other,(an entirely)complete confidence,repeat the

question(again),return(back) from abroad,etc.

3)择语的生动感

生动感也可以叫做优美感(gracefulness),它是建筑在准确性和鲜明度的基础上的,否则,单纯追求生动或优雅,就会出现辞藻华丽(flowery)而内容空洞的文风,这是应当避免的。

托福考试中写作部分有何答题技巧

针对某一个论题,每一种观点都有它的理由。同样,在TOEFL作文中也不存在着唯一的观点和内容。这时,你可以从两个完全相反的观点中选择一个立场。关键在于你如何说服读者:尽管存在着相反的立场,你的观点从总体上来说仍然是最具说服力的。

一般说来,应该选择那个政治上正确的或者大多数考生会选择的观点。当然,如果你不擅长写这种文章,你可以适当地调整一下内容以适应你较习惯的舒服的表达方式。但总的说来,文章要均衡,不要包含高度争议性的论述。不要把这里当成思想家的论坛。写一篇高度争议性的文章只会让读者对你产生偏见,同时也会使电脑评分器费解,因为这种文章和其数据库里所储存的文章差别太大。所以,针对问题时尽量使用较冷静平和的语气。尽管如此,你也不能不选择一个立场。你必须选择一个将要“出现”在开头段落和结论段落里的观点。当然,考试时,题目会让你选择一种观点,但你必须明确地表述出来。

每篇文章你只有30分钟,这么短的时间内你不可能覆盖每一个推理,反驳和例子。当你开始考试时,抽出几分钟的时间确定要写的论点和例子。你不必包含每个论题和概念。大部分学生都没有足够的时间覆盖他想覆盖的内容。所以,只要选择其中最具说服力的点和例子。其实,判分者也不期望你对每个论题都作深入的探讨。

这里最重要的是你的作文不要离题。抓住要点。不要扯远了也不要过分集中在某个例子上。

题目会告诉你可以利用自己的经历来展开你的论点,得出结论。这种方法是可以的,但不要过分。你的推理依据应该更偏向于所学到的知识而非个人经历。你所举的例子或者知识可能很吸引人,但不要试图深入。因为TOEFL作文测试的是你基本写作能力,而非你的专业知识。留学生:尽量多读一些美国杂志,以适应美国人写作的习惯和跟上时代的潮流。

试着将自己放在评分者的位置上,他们整天在为作文判分。你希望看到一篇包含5段每段4句的简洁的有效的文章还是4段每段10句的散漫的文章呢?简而言之:确保你的作文干脆,简洁能取悦评分者。在Issue部分这尤其重要,因为在这里你表达的是你自己的观点。

以上就是TOEFL写作考试的注意事项,考生们要记牢这些,尽量避免问题的发生,一些考生为了增加单词量在句子中添加一些无用词,是整段内容显得冗杂繁琐,这类情形要减少发生,只要在生活中多积累经典语句,在TOEFL写作中自然不会发生凑词凑句的情况发生,平时多积累些

,优美句子,用在都是简单句的作文中,会使得你的作文更有深度。

托福写作结尾技巧:如何给文章锦上添花

如何写好托福写作的开头是不少考生重视的,但是结尾段也同样重要,一个好的作文结尾也会给文章增色不少,给人留下深刻的印象。今天我们就来看看托福写作结尾段如何写的简洁精彩,让你的文章脱颖而出。

重申立场

重申立场+总结理由

让步+重申立场

重申立场+引申扩展

引申扩展包括:

强调反对派立场会带来的后果

展望未来问题的前景

强调重要性

一、重申立场

“It is difficult for people to achieve professional success without sacrificing important aspects of a fulfilling personal life.”

In conclusion, given the growing demands of career on today’s professionals, a fulfilling personal life remains possible by working smarter, by setting priorities, and by making suitable career choices.

二、重申立场+总结理由

“Since science and technology are becoming more and more essential to modern society, schools should devote more time to teaching science and technology and less to teaching the arts and humanities.”

In conclusion, schools should not devote less time to the arts and humanities. These areas of study augment and enhance learning in mathematics and science, as well as helping to preserve the richness of our entire human legacy while inspiring us to further it. Moreover, disciplines within the humanities provide methods and contexts for evaluating the morality of our technology and for determining its proper direction.

三、让步+重申立场

“Job security and salary should be based on employee performance, not on years of service. Rewarding employees primarily for years of service discourages people from maintaining consistently high levels of productivity.”

In the final analysis, the statement correctly identifies job performance as the single best criterion for salary and job security. However, the statement goes too far, it ignores the fact that a cost-of-living salary increase for tenured employees not only enhances loyalty and, in the end, productivity, but also is required by fairness.

四、重申立场+引申扩展

How far should a supervisor go in criticizing the performance of a subordinate? Some highly successful managers have been known to rely on verbal abuse and intimidation. Do you think that this is an effective means of communicating expectations? If not, what alternative should a manager use in dealing with someone whose work is less than satisfactory?

In conclusion, supervisors should avoid using verbal abuse and threats. These methods degrade subordinates, and they are unlikely to produce the best results in the long run. It is more respectful, and probably more effective overall, to handle cases of substandard work performance with clear, honest and supportive feedback.

以上是托福写作结尾的写作重点,考生只要把握好以上四个基本点,用好用活,那文章的结尾就能给文章锦上添花。最后新东方网祝大家考试顺利。

如何掌握20xx年中考英语写作技巧

英语写作是一种创作性的学习过程。启动知识信息储存,构思立意,谋篇布局,遣词

,对语言表达的正确性和准确性、思维的逻辑性和文章的条理性都比口语要求更高。通常英语写作有以下几个特点:紧扣教学大纲对考生书面表达的要求;以有指导的写作为主(guidedwriting),便于考生在短时间内构思成文;突出试题的交际性,考查考生在特定的情景中运用语言的能力;增强试题的实用性,所选话题贴近学生学习生活,为学生所熟悉;看图作文主要考查考生运用所学知识解决实际问题的能力。

一、先审题,弄清写作要求审题是写好作文的前提,也是书面表达的基础。如果写偏了题,语言表达再好也很难得高分。审题时要注意两个方面:

1.认真地看两遍题目,包括提示,全面了解写作要求。

2.理清思路,确定体裁、框架结构和内容。

二、用英语进行思维英语写作时必须排除汉语思维的干扰。

从现在起应逐渐加大阅读量和听的输入量,将阅读、听力训练与书面表达有机地结合起来。经常体会和领悟作者传递信息和表达思想的方式。在话题讨论和写作中经常运用所学到的表达方式就会有所创造。还要尽量做到“五多”:多看、多听、多思考、多用心体验和感悟身边的人和事、多用英语说和写自己的体验和感受。

1.重视增加阅读量是提高英语写作的途径之一。

目前,考生在进行大量阅读的同时,应注重所读材料的文章结构以及连接词的运用(ontheotherhand,however,furthermore)、作者的表达方式(词汇、习惯用语和典型句子的使用)、作者是如何进行叙述和议论的。

2.在教师的指导下,平时应勤写多练。

练习写作应从基本功抓起。在中译英翻译训练过程中,加强积累适量的词汇、词组和增加各种类型句子的运用。把握好各种句型和词汇的搭配,并从各类题材和体裁着手,多阅读好的范文。然后模仿写作,作文写好之后,一般都要修改。第一遍收笔后,先看一看结构,然后从字词上推敲,使文章“充实”起来。更重要的是经老师修改过的作文一定要仔细地看一至两遍,然后再认真地抄写一遍,收获将会很大。

由于时间限制,考试时必须在所限定的时间内完成英语作文。英语作文步骤如下:

1)作文动笔之前一般都要先打腹稿。在确立中心上、运用材料上、篇章结构上,充分酝酿。

2)考虑好想写多少句子,该用哪些动词和词组等。

3)边写边思考内容的连贯性,语言和句子的准确性。

4)写完后一定要再细看一遍。

(一)写提示议论文应考虑的几点:1.文章开头,能依据提示确立主题句(topic)阐明观点或看法。

2.会使用连接词分层次说明理由、缘由(supportingsentences)。

3.归纳总结,首尾呼应。

(二)看图作文应考虑的几点:1.看懂图片,把图片展示的人物、地点、时间、事件等有机地串联起来,使之成为内容连贯的句子。

2.确定短文须用的时态和该用的人称。

3.确定体裁(说明文还是记叙文),接着用简洁的语句描述图片或图表大意。

4.根据图片或图表大意议论。

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中考英语作文:记叙文写作技巧

记叙文是记人叙事的文章,它主要是用于说明事件的时间、背景、起因、过程及结果,即我们通常所说的五个“ W ”( what, who, when, where, why )和一个“ H ”( how )。记叙文的重点在于“述说”和“描写”,因此一篇好的记叙文要叙述条理清楚,描写生动形象。下面就谈谈英语记叙文的特点和写好记叙文的基本要领。

英语的记叙文一般是以第一或第三人称的角度来叙述的。用第一称表示的是由叙述者亲眼所见、亲耳所闻的经历。它的优点在于能把故事的情节通过“我”来传达给读者,使人读后感到真实可信,如身临其境。如:

The other day, I was driving along the street. Suddenly, a car lost its control and ran directly towards me fast. I was so frightened that I quickly turned to the left side. But it was too late. The car hit my bike and I fell off it.

用第三人称叙述,优点在于叙述者不受“我”活动范围以内的人和事物的限制,而是通过作者与读者之外的第三者,直接把故事中的情节展现在读者面前,文章的客观性很强。如:

Little Tom was going to school with an umbrella, for it was raining hard. On the way, he saw an old woman walking in the rain with nothing to cover. Tom went up to the old woman and wanted to share the umbrella with her, but he was too short. What could he do? Then he had a good idea.

在记叙文中,记和叙都离不开动词。所以动词出现率最高,且富于变化。记叙文中用得最多的是动词的过去的,这是英语记叙文区别于汉语记叙文的关键之处。英语写作的优美之处就在于这些动词时态的变化,正是这一点才使得所记、所叙有鲜活的动态感、鲜明的层次感和立体感。

记叙一件事要有一定的顺序。无论是顺叙、倒叙、插叙还是补叙,都要让读者能弄清事情的来龙去脉。顺叙最容易操作,较容易给读者提供有关事情的空间和时间线索。但这种方法也容易使文章显得平铺直叙,读起来平淡乏味。倒叙、插叙、补叙等叙述方法能有效地提高文章的结构效果,让所叙之事跌宕起伏,使读者在阅读时思维产生较大的跳跃,从而为文章所吸引,深入其中。但这些方法如果使用不当,则容易弄巧成拙,使文章结构散乱,头绪不清,让读者不知所云。

过渡在上下文中起着承上启下、融会贯通的作用。过渡往往用在地点转移或时间、事件转换以及由概括说明到具体叙述时。如:

In my summer holidays, I did a lot of things. Apart form doing my homework, reading an English novel, watching TV and doing some housework, I went on a trip to Qingdao. It is really a beautiful city. There are many places of interest to see. But what impressed me most was the sunrise.

The next morning I got up early. I was very happy because it was a fine day. By the time I got to the beach, the clouds on the horizon were turning red. In a little while, a small part of the sun was gradually appearing. The sun was very red, not shining. It rose slowly. At last it broke through the red clouds and jumped above the sea, just like a deep-red ball. At the same time the clouds and the sea water became red and bright.

What a moving and unforgettable scene!

引用故事情节中主要人物的对话是记叙文提高表现力的一种好方法。适当地用直接引语代替间接的主观叙述,可以客观生动地反映人物的性格、品质和心理状态,使记叙生动、有趣,使文章内容更加充实、具体。试比较下面两段的叙述效果:

I was in the kitchen, and I was cooking something. Suddenly I heard a loud noise from the front. I thought maybe someone was knocking the door. I asked who it was but I heard no reply. After a while I saw my cat running across the parlor. I realized it was the cat. I felt released.

这本来应是一段故事性很强的文字,但经作者这么一写,就不那么吸引人了。原因是文中用的都是叙述模式,没有人物语言,把“悬念”给冲淡了。可作如下调整:

I was in the kitchen cooking something. "Crash!" a loud noise came from the front. Thinking someone was knocking at the door, I asked, "Who?" No reply. After a while, I saw my cat running across the parlor. "It's you." I said, quite released.

写好记叙文,首先要头绪分明,脉络清楚,明确文章要求写什么。要对所写的事件或人物进行分析,弄清事件发生、发展一直到结束的整个过程,然后再收集选取素材。这些素材都应该跟上述五个“ W ”和一个“ H ”有关。尽管不是每篇记叙文里都必须包括这些“ W ”和“ H ”,但动笔之前,围绕五个“ W ”和“ H ”进行构思是必不可少的。

在文章的框架确定后,对支持故事的素材的选取是很关键的。选材要注意取舍,应该从表现文章主题的需要出发,分清主次,定好详略。要突出重点,详写细述那些能表现文章主题的重要情节,略写粗述那么非关键的次要情节。面面俱到反而使情节罗列化,使人不得要领。这一点是写好记叙文要解决的一个基本问题,也需要一定的技巧。如:

One night a man came to our house and told me, "There is a family with eight children. They have not eaten for days." I took some food with me and went.

When I finally came to that family, I saw the faces of those little children disfigured (破坏外貌) by hunger. There was no sorrow or sadness in their faces, just the deep pain of hunger.

I gave the rice to the mother. She divided the rice in two, and went out, carrying half the rice. When she came back, I asked her, "Where did you go?" she gave me this simple answer, "To my neighbors — they are hungry also!"

记叙文要用具体的事件和生动的语言对人、事、物加以叙述。一篇好的记叙文的语言既要准确、生动,又要表现力强,这样才能把人、事描写得具体生动,其可读性才强。试比较下面一篇例文修改的前后效果。

One day Xiaoqiang was wandering away. He was soon lost among people and traffic. He could not find the way back home and started crying. Just then, two young students who were passing by found him standing alone in front of a shop and crying. They went up to Xiaoqiang and asked him what had happened. Xiaoqiang told them how he got lost and where he lived. The two students decided to take him home. Mother was pleased to see Xiaoqiang come back safe and sound. She invited the two students into the house and gave them some money, but they didn't take it. She served them with tea but they left.

修改后:

The other day, five-year-old Xiaoqiang left home alone and wandered happily in the street. After some time, he felt hungry so he wanted to go back home. But he found he was lost among the crowded people and heavy traffic. When he could not find the way home, he started and crying. Just then, two young students who were passing by from school found him sanding crying in front of a shop. They immediately went up to him.

"Little boy, why are you standing here crying?" they asked.

"I want Mom, I go home." said the boy, still crying.

"Don't worry, we'll send you home."

And they spent the next two hours looking for the boy's house. With the help of a policeman, they finally found it.

When the worried mother saw her son come back safe and sound, she was so thankful and she invited the students into her house. Gratefully, she offered them some money, saying it was a way to express her thanks, but the young students firmly refused it and left without even a cup of tea.

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